Archive for February, 2023

By Anastasia Safronova

February 8 marks the day of Russian science, when past achievements are celebrated to inspire new generations for the future. The list of Soviet and Russian specialists who have made crucial contributions to physics, chemistry, medicine and biology amongst others is too long to outline, but their work is used every day around the world. 

The Periodic Table

The Periodic Table of Chemical Elements, a basic tool used by scientists to explore matter and foresee the existence of new elements, was created by Russian scientist Dmitry Mendeleev in 1869. In 2019, the UN celebrated The International Year of the Periodic Table, to mark the 150th anniversary of the discovery it called“a window on the universe.”

Humanity has known about several chemical elements since ancient times. In the 17th century, German alchemist Hennig Brand accidentally discovered a new element – phosphorus – and triggered a wave of scientific experiments. A hundred years later, French chemist Antoine Lavoisier wrote ‘Elementary Treatise of Chemistry’, considered to be the first modern chemistry textbook.RT

D. M. Mendeleev at his desk in the office of the Chamber of Weights and Measures. ©  Sputnik / F. Bloombach 

Mendeleev was only 35 years old when he made the greatest discovery of his life.

He had suspected a relationship between the elements since he was a student, and over the years, this idea became an obsession. “…The anticipation of the imminent resolution of a question that tormented me put me in an excited state,” he recalled. “For several weeks I slept fitfully, trying to find that magical principle… And then one fine morning, after spending a sleepless night… I lay down on the sofa in the office and fell asleep. And in a dream, a table appeared to me quite clearly.” Mendeleev arranged the elements by atomic weight and noted periodicity of properties. Then, he grouped the elements with similar properties below each other.

This system allowed Mendeleev to predict the existence of further elements. In the middle of the 19th century, only about 63 elements were known whereas now 118 elements currently populate the periodic table. The latest addition, oganesson, is named after Russian nuclear scientist Yuri Oganesyan, who assisted in the discovery of several superheavy elements, now added to the table.RT

Scientific Director of the JINR Nuclear Research Institute Yuri Oganesyan after the launch of the DC-280 cyclotron, within the framework of the regular session of the Committee of Plenipotentiaries of the member States of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. ©  Sputnik / Grigory Sysoev 

Field Surgery

Doctor Nikolay Pirogov made an immense contribution to medicine worldwide and is often described as the “father of Russian medicine”. He is considered an innovator and was the founder of field surgery – or offering complex treatment to the wounded in the middle of combat.RT

N.I. Pirogov (in the middle stands with his back). Fragment of the panorama ‘Defense of Sevastopol’ by F. Rubo 

Pirogov became the first surgeon to use ether as an anesthetic in 1847 while working in a field hospital. He was the main surgeon in the besieged city of Sevastopol through the Crimean War in the 1850s and was also one of the first to use orthopedic casts from plaster, which helped prevent amputation of limbs. 

Pirogov further improved Russian field medicine by applying the innovations and practice of his contemporaries. During the Crimean War, Pirogov emulated Florence Nightingale by training a Russian group of female nurses. Additionally, after meeting the famous French surgeon Dominique Jean Larrey in Paris, Pirogov introduced Larrey’s triage system to the Russian army’s medical corps.RT

Sisters of the Holy Cross Community, Sevastopol, 1855. ©  Wikipedia 

Classical Conditioning

Even if you’ve never heard about Russian neurologist and physiologist Ivan Pavlov, you’re probably familiar with ‘Pavlov’s dog’. 

While researching the digestion process of animals, Pavlov realized that dogs began to salivate when they saw the assistant who fed them. The scientist presented a stimulus – the sound of a metronome – and then fed the dog. After several attempts, the animals started to salivate in response to the stimulus. 

The experiment became a base for the classical conditioning theory: An unconditioned stimulus (in Pavlov’s case – food) caused an unconditioned response (dog’s salivation). A neutral stimulus (the metronome’s sound without food) didn’t cause any reaction, but after conditioning (offered with food), the metronome’s sound became a conditioned stimulus and caused a conditioned reaction (salivation) even if food didn’t follow. RT

Ivan Pavlov and his colleagues from the Physiology department at the Military Medical Academy in Petrograd, 1914. ©  Sputnik / RIA News 

Classical conditioning helps understand the basic form of learning and is often used in behavioral therapies. Specialists also use it to investigate and treat addictions.

In 1904, Pavlov became the first Russian to be awarded The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged.” 

Deciphering the Maya Script

“You don’t need to jump across the pyramids to understand how to work with texts” – Yuri Knorozov. 

Knorozov was a Soviet linguist and ethnographer who managed to decipher the script of the Maya civilization. He published an article in 1952 proclaiming his achievement. At the time, he was just 30 years old, but perhaps more remarkable is that he had never visited Central America.RT

Maya stucco glyphs diplayed in the museum at Palenque, Mexico. ©  Wikipedia 

Knorozov studied Egyptology at Moscow State University, and was fascinated by the Mayan culture. As he recalled, he was heavily influenced by a 1945 article by German researcher Paul Schellhas titled, “Is deciphering of the Maya hieroglyphs an unsolvable problem?”

While working on the Maya scripts, Knorozov demonstrated that the hieroglyphs represent sounds. Later, he composed a catalog of 540 symbols, and explained the method on how to use them to read and understand the Maya texts.

Knorosov’s work was translated into many languages and sparked discussions in the scientific community for decades. Soviet scientists led by Knorozov went on to work on the decipherment of other historical mysteries such as the rongorongo script of Easter Island and the Indus script.

In Mexico, there are monuments to Knorozov in the capital and in the Yucatan peninsula city of Merida where the Mayan civilization existed. The scientist is portrayed together with his cat Asya that Knorozov called his “co-author”.RT

Yuri Knorozov ©  Wikimedia Commons 

Development of Lasers

It’s extremely difficult to imagine the modern world without lasers. They are used everywhere – in medicine, industry, electronic devices and beyond. ‘Laser’ is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The creation of such devices was predicted by Albert Einstein in 1917, when he described the process of ‘stimulated emission’ – the release of energy from an excited atom by artificial means.

Before scientists developed a laser, they worked on the ‘maser’ concept (Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation). The research was done simultaneously in the USSR and in the US. In 1952, Soviet physicists Nikolay Basov and Alexander Prokhorov described the theoretical principles for maser operation.

Later, they proposed a principle for achieving population inversion by pumping a three-level system. This technique proved to be highly effective and is now widely used in various lasers and spectral ranges.

Simultaneously, American physicist Joseph Weber described how to use stimulated emissions to make a microwave amplifier. Using this method, physicist Charles H. Townes built the first maser. 

In 1964, Basov, Prokhorov and Townes shared the Nobel Prize “for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle.”RT

Russian physicists Nikolai Basov (1922-2001) and Alexander Prokhorov (1916-2002), the founders of quantum electronics, who won the Soviet Union’s Lenin prize in 1959 and the world’s Nobel prize in 1964. ©  Sputnik / D. Chernov 

Optical Holography

Holography is generally best known as a method to create a 3D image, which can be seen without any special glasses or other devices. Holography itself was invented by Hungarian-British physicist Dennis Gabor in 1947. While trying to improve an electron microscope, he discovered a method to record the entire field information – amplitude and phase – and not just the usual intensity.

The breakthrough in the technology followed laser invention and development, which were distinguished from other light sources by their coherence (meaning that the wavelengths of the laser light are in phase in space and time).

In the 1960s, Soviet physicist Yuri Denisyuk created a single-beam technique to produce a high quality image. This method became widely known as “Denisyuk holography”. When a Denisyuk hologram is recorded with at least three lasers, full color holograms can be obtained. 

Interestingly, Denisyuk took inspiration from the Lippmann color photography technique (interferential photography), which is a color-only technique that records the entire visible color spectrum. When a Denisyuk hologram is recorded with at least three lasers, full color holograms, depicting a very realistic image of an object, can be obtained.RT

Laureate of the Lenin Prize, correspondent member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Yury Denisyuk, in the Leningrad laboratory of holography of the Vavilov State Optical Institute. ©  Sputnik / V. Baranovskiy 

Linear Programming

Soviet economist Leonid Kantorovich was the first to describe the method now known as ‘linear programming,’ used in industry and business planning, having developed the idea in the 1930s. As Kantorovich recalled, he faced a formidable task to find the optimal loading for peeling machines. While searching for an effective solution, Kantorovich took into account many other similar problems, such as the effective use of agricultural land, which all seemed to fit a certain mathematical model. In 1975, the scientist shared a Nobel Prize with Dutch economist Tjalling C. Koopmans “for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources.”

Linear programming methods have since been improved by many scientists around the world. It is widely used in microeconomics and can be applied to planning, production and transportation to minimize production costs and maximize income.RT

Soviet mathematician and economist Leonid Kantorovich, one of the inventors of the linear programming method, recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences and a Member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. ©  Sputnik / Vladimir Vyatkin 

Space Exploration

It’s nearly impossible to imagine the Soviet and Russian space programs without Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, universally recognized as the “father of human spaceflight.” Apart from being a brilliant scientist, Tsiolkovsky was quite an extraordinary man. At the age of 10, he almost completely lost his hearing and was forced to dedicate himself to self-education. 

Most of Tsiolkovsky’s ideas outpaced his time. In 1895, he predicted artificial satellite development and use. In 1903, he published a mathematical equation, now known as the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, describing rocket travel in space which is still used by aerospace engineers. Tsiolkovsky also envisioned and explained how future spaceships would overcome Earth’s gravity, described their flight path and how they would land. Decades later, his theories became reality, brought to life by new generations of scientists and engineers.RT

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), the founder of interplanetary communication theory, in his workshop. ©  Sputnik / RIA News 

In the 20s, schoolboy Valentin Glushko wrote several letters to Tsiolkovsky, detailing his dreams about space flight, which later became the point of his life. Glushko would go on to design rocket engines that took Soviet satellites and cosmonauts to space, as well as the “Buran” spaceplane.RT

Energia Buran, the Soviet manned space system, which includes an Energia new powerful launch rocket and the Buran space shuttle. ©  Sputnik / Alexander Mokletsov 

Sergey Korolev is also a significant figure in the history of space exploration. He led the Soviet space program and worked on the launch of the Sputnik 1 satellite. Korolev’s guidance oversaw many other aerospace achievements including Yuri Gagarin’s ground breaking space flight, Alexey Leonov’s first human spacewalk, the first woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova, and a number of other groundbreaking space missions. RT

Our Fatherland in Photos exhibition. The Manege Central Exhibition Hall. Replica of the photo, Yuri Gagarin and Sergei Korolev, by I. Snegirev. ©  Sputnik / Snegirev Igor 

Nuclear Reactions

Soviet and Russian atomic scientists have always been frontrunners in researching nuclear energy, and Igor Kurchatov is one of the most prominent. Kurchatov worked on the peaceful application of atomic energy while leading the Soviet nuclear weapons project. His work led to the first grid-connected nuclear power plant launched in the city of Obninsk in 1954, near Moscow.RT

Igor Kurchatov ©  Sputnik / RIA News 

Modern-day nuclear fusion relies heavily on the research of another globally-known Soviet physicist – Andrey Sakharov. Together with Nobel Prize-awarded scientist Igor Tamm, they developed the tokamak concept – a device that uses a powerful magnetic field to confine plasma and produce controlled thermonuclear fusion power. Their research forms the base of fusion reactor development today.

Both Kurchatov and Sakharov played key roles in the development of Soviet nuclear weapons. In 1949, a team led by Kurchatov tested the first Soviet nuclear bomb. Six years later, the first hydrogen bomb designed by Sakharov and his team was tested in the same area.RT

The prominent Soviet physicist and Academician of the Soviet Academy of Sciences Andrei Sakharov (1921-1989). ©  Sputnik / Boris Kaufman 

The Denisovans

In the late 2000s, Russian archeologists made a surprising discovery: They found a new species of archaic human. They named it “The Denisovan”, after the Denisova cave where it was found. The cave’s location is in the Altai mountains in Siberia. 

Archeological work at the site began in the 1970s. In 1990, Anatoly Derevyanko from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Science established a special research center in the area.RT

Denisova Cave: Soloneshensky district, Altai Krai. ©  Wikipedia 

In 2008, a group of scientists led by Mikhail Shunkov found a finger bone of a young female. The bone contained well-preserved DNA, which was sequenced by the team of Swedish researcher Svante Pääbo at the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig, Germany. Following a series of tests, in 2010 they announced that the genetic material belongs to a previously unknown hominin. 

Scientists now believe the Denisovans may have lived in the cave some 200 thousand years ago. The work in the Denisova cave continues, and likely holds even more secrets of human history.

Source: RT


Sovereign’s Handbook by Johnny Liberty 
(30th Anniversary Edition)
(3-Volume Printed, Bound Book or PDF)

A three-volume, 750+ page tome with an extensive update of the renowned underground classic ~ the Global Sovereign’s Handbook. Still after all these years, this is the most comprehensive book on sovereignty, economics, law, power structures and history ever written. Served as the primary research behind the best-selling Global One Audio Course.Available Now!


Dawning of the Corona Age: Navigating the Pandemic by Johnny Freedom 
(3rd Edition)
(Printed, Bound Book or PDF)

This comprehensive book, goes far beyond the immediate impact of the “pandemic”, but, along with the reader, imagines how our human world may be altered, both positively and negatively, long into an uncertain future. Available Now!

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Facing the Pillars of Hercules was an island larger than Africa and Europe put together. Beside this main island there were many other smaller ones, so that it was easy to cross from one to another as far as the further continent. This land was indeed a continent, and the sea was the real ocean in comparison to which “The Sea” of the Greeks was but a bay with a narrow mouth.

In the Atlantic island a powerful federation of Kings was formed, who subdued the larger island itself and many of the smaller islands and also parts of the further continent. They also reduced Africa within the Straits as far as Egypt, and Europe and as far as Tyrrhenia. Farther aggression, however, was stopped by the heroic action of the then inhabitants of Attica, who, taking the lead of the oppressed States, finally secured liberty to all who dwelt within the Pillars of Hercules. Subsequently, both places were destroyed by mighty cataclysms, which brought destruction in a single day and night. The natural features of the Attic land were entirely changed and the Atlantic island sank bodily beneath the waves.

In the center of the Atlantic Island was a fair and beautiful plain. In the center of this plain and nearly six miles from its confines was a low range of hills. Here dwelt for many generations the renowned race of the Atlan, from whom the whole island and sea were named Atlantic or Atlantis. The ruling Kings ever handed down the succession of power to their eldest sons, the younger sons going into the priesthood. They were possessed of such wealth as no dynasty ever yet obtained or will procure easily hereafter. This wealth was drawn both from all foreign nations with whom the Atlantians traded and from Atlantis itself, which was especially rich in minerals, and possessed the only known mines of orichalcum in the world, a mineral with most wonderful and inexhaustible properties – a metal which was then second only to gold in its value.

The country was rich also in timber and pasturage. Moreover there were vast numbers of elephants, spices, gums and odorous plants of every description; flowers, fruit trees and vegetables of all kinds, and many other luxurious products which this wonderful Continent, owing to its beneficient climate, brought forth. These were sacred, beautiful, curious and infinite in number. Nor were the inhabitants content with simply the natural advantages of their glorious country, but also displayed a marvelous industry and skill in engineering and the constructive arts. For, in the center of the island they built a royal palace, every succeeding King trying to surpass his predecessor in adorning and adding to the building, so that it struck all beholders with the greatest admiration.

They cut about the Royal Palace a series of waterways or canals. These were bridged over at intervals, while an immense canal admitted the largest vessels from the sea, giving at once protection as a harbor, and making it more convenient for the transportation of freight to and from the interior. In fashioning their interior streams they left the docks cut out of the solid rock where their triremes could land their cargoes.

The stone used in their building was of three colors, white, black and red, so that many of the buildings presented a gay appearance.

Northeast of the center of the Continent, stood the great Temple. The interior was covered with silver,except for the pediments and pinnacles, which were lined with gold. Within, the roof was a magnificent mosaic of gold, ivory and orichalcum, and all walls, pillars and pavements were covered with orichalcum.

By a system of aqueducts leading from natural springs of hot and cold water, they had supplies for baths, and for the irrigation of their beautiful plantations and gardens. The docks were filled with shipping and naval stores of every description known to men at that time. The whole city teemed with a dense population. The main canal and largest harbor were crowded with merchant shipping returning from, or making ready to sail for, all parts of the world. The din and tumult of their commerce continued all day long, and the night through as well. Such is a general sketch of their wonderful city.

Now, as regards the rest of the country; it was very mountainous with exceedingly precipitous coasts, and the plain surrounding the city was itself environed by a mountain chain broken only at the sea entrance. The plain was smooth and level and of an oblong shape, lying North and South. The mountains were said to be the grandest in the world for their number, size and beauty. The whole country was a constant succession of prosperous and wealthy villages, for there was an abundance of rivers and lakes, meadows and pasturage for all kinds of cattle and quantities of timber. They surrounded this plain with an enormous canal or dyke, 101 feet deep, 606 feet broad, and 1,250 miles in length. By it the water from the mountains was conducted around the whole plain, and while a part flowed out to the sea, the rest was husbanded for irrigation. They were able, by raising two crops a year, to double their productive capacity.

In the polity of the Atlantians the Kings maintained an autocracy and the priesthood were their council of consultation in all matters of State, until at last the power passed into the hands of the priesthood.

For many generations, the rulers, King and priest remained obedient to their ancestral traditions. For they possessed true and altogether lofty ideas and exercised mildness and practical wisdom, both in the ordinary vicissitudes of life and in their mutual relations. The looked above everything except virtue. They considered things present of small importance, and contentedly bore their weight of riches as a burden. Nor were they intoxicated with luxury, but clearly perceived that wealth and possessions are increased by mutual friendship and the practice of true virtue; whereas, by a too anxious pursuit of riches the possessions themselves are corrupted and friendship also perishes therewith. Thus it was they reached the great height of prosperity we have described.

But when, at last their mortal natures began seeking to dominate and override the Divine within and about them, they commenced to display unbecoming conduct, and to degenerate; this blighting and finally destroying the fairest of their most valuable possessions.

The following is the Maya account of the destruction of Atlantis, from Dr. Augustus Le Plongeon’s rendering of the Troano manuscript:

“The year six Kan, on the eleventh Muluc, in the month Zac, there occurred terrible earthquakes, which continued without intermission until the thirteenth Chuen. The country of the hills of mud, the ‘land of Mu,’ was sacrificed. Being twice upheaved, it suddenly disappeared during the night, the basin being continually shaken by volcanic forces. Being confined, these caused the land to sink and rise several times and in various places. At last, the surface gave way, and the ten countries were torn asunder and scattered into fragments; unable to withstand the force of the seismic convulsions, they sank with sixty-four millions of inhabitants, eight thousand years before the writing of this book.”

We perceive in the near future, as has been repeatedly foretold the end of a cycle is at hand in Cataclysmic results; the sinking of land some places; and the rising in others, is imminent. When cities peculiarly situated are crowded with inhabitants, who have lost everything but their own desires centering in selfish purpose, their thought vibrations become inharmonious with the universal thought vibrations. If this disharmony continues strong enough to communicate itself to the ground upon which the city stands, this foundation being subject also, to a set of vibrations upon the natural plane of Liquidity, serious consequences may occur.

Just what the outcome of the present period will be none but the Council of the Seven Great Builders know. But this we have gathered: That within a hundred years, and possibly a much shorter time, Atlantis will be above the waves. Whatever her monuments contain, or whatever may be in her ruined temple can be investigated.

Within 500 years the bulk of the population will be south of the equator that which is now sea, will become dry land, and the old continent of Lemuria will once more sustain its millions of inhabitants. Scientists tell us that the time is fixed when all the gold, silver and coal will be mined. How short-sighted! Under the sea is a thousand-fold more than has ever been brought to light by man’s busy hands.

Source: Nobulart


Sovereign’s Handbook by Johnny Liberty 
(30th Anniversary Edition)
(3-Volume Printed, Bound Book or PDF)

A three-volume, 750+ page tome with an extensive update of the renowned underground classic ~ the Global Sovereign’s Handbook. Still after all these years, this is the most comprehensive book on sovereignty, economics, law, power structures and history ever written. Served as the primary research behind the best-selling Global One Audio Course.Available Now!


Dawning of the Corona Age: Navigating the Pandemic by Johnny Freedom 
(3rd Edition)
(Printed, Bound Book or PDF)

This comprehensive book, goes far beyond the immediate impact of the “pandemic”, but, along with the reader, imagines how our human world may be altered, both positively and negatively, long into an uncertain future. Available Now!

$25.00 ~ PRINT BOOK
$10.00 ~ EBOOK

Read Full Post »